I believe that managing your infrastructure can and should be fun. Recently I have been toying around with Vagrant and Salt Stack to make this a reality. This weekend, I managed to combine these tools to automatically provision a new Nginx server on Digital Ocean.

This in itself is nothing new - the interesting part is where I have published the entire script as a Github repository without sacrificing any security.

If you’re not interested in the story and just want to go and reproduce my infrastructure, go ahead and fork my repo on Github.

The base Vagrantfile

I began by using Vagrant, an exciting tool that abstracts away all VM hassles into a single configuration file. Using a VirtualBox image I created earlier using Veewee, the following Vagrantfile allowed me to spin up and destroy a local Debian Wheezy VM.

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|

  # Default configuration for Virtualbox
  config.vm.box = 'debian-wheezy-64'
  config.vm.box_url = 'https://www.dropbox.com/s/00ndb5ea4k8hyoy/debian-wheezy-64.box'

  # Name the VM
  config.vm.define :nginx01


Just by having this simple file, I can now manage a VM with the commands vagrant up, vagrant ssh and vagrant destroy.

Salting the image

Starting a VM like this is already a sweet experience, but it gets better. The salty-vagrant plugin allows me to automatically install and configure software on the VM using the super sweet Salt Stack framework.

Yes, I know, Vagrant supports Puppet and Chef provisioning out of the box, but some time ago I decided that I don’t just want provisioning for my infrastructure. I want a remote execution framework as well. And that’s how you end up with Salt Stack.

Anyway, the following lines in my Vagrantfile were enough to enable Salt Stack:

# Mount salt roots, so we can do masterless setup
config.vm.synced_folder 'salt/roots/', '/srv/'

# Forward 8080 to nginx
config.vm.network :forwarded_port, guest: 80, host: 8080

# Provisioning #1: install salt stack
config.vm.provision :shell,
    :inline => 'wget -O - http://bootstrap.saltstack.org | sudo sh'

# Provisioning #2: masterless highstate call
config.vm.provision :salt do |salt|
    salt.minion_config = 'salt/minion'
    salt.run_highstate = true
    salt.verbose = true

This, and some Salt files of course. They can be found in my Github repo under salt/roots. In this case, the Salt files just install and configure a simple Nginx server, but it’s the principle that counts.

Also note that technically, the vagrant-salt-plugin is able to install Salt for you as well. However, for some reason the plugin has decided that this requires a complete recompile of python-zmq, which I am not interested in. So I use the official method of installing Salt before I start the plugin.

And now, after doing a vagrant up, the VM is automatically provisioned with a running Nginx server, accessible through http://localhost:8080.

Adding Digital Ocean

Once again a sweet experience, but hosting my infrastructure on my development machine is not really future-proof. Which brings me to the next part: deploying the exact same configuration on a real VPS.

Given [the current list of available Vagrant plugins] (https://github.com/mitchellh/vagrant/wiki/Available-Vagrant-Plugins), and the fact that I don’t want to spend too much on this right now, I decided on using Digital Ocean. They offer nice small SSD-backed VPSs for only $5,- a month. And you pay by the hour. Which means that this entire exercise has cost me $0.05 so far.

The README of the vagrant-digitalocean plugin is self-explanatory, but it has one major flaw: it puts your client ID and API key in the main Vagrantfile. Call me old-fashioned, but I don’t like sharing this information on Github.

Luckily, Vagrant has a complete settings-merging process in place, which meant I could simply create the following ~/.vagrant.d/Vagrantfile:

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
    config.vm.provider :digital_ocean do |provider, override|
        override.ssh.private_key_path = '~/.ssh/id_dsa'
        override.vm.box_url = 'https://github.com/smdahlen/vagrant-digitalocean/raw/master/box/digital_ocean.box'

        provider.client_id = 'MY-SECRET-ID'
        provider.api_key = 'MY-SUPER-SECRET-API-KEY'

Note the override.vm.box_url setting – my beautiful preinstalled Wheezy VM is useless on Digital Ocean, so I just use their dummy box. Always.

Having set up my private information, I just needed to add the following lines to my main Vagrantfile:

# VM-specific digital ocean config
config.vm.provider :digital_ocean do |provider|
    provider.image = 'Debian 7.0 x64'
    provider.region = 'New York 1'
    provider.size = '512MB'

Deploying the image

The proof is in the pudding (apparently), so with great trepidation I did a vagrant up --provider digital_ocean.

You should try it yourself – this was really quite exciting. Just a few minutes later, I could access my professionally provisioned Nginx VPS on Without me ever SSH-ing to the server itself.

Mission Accomplished!

Or was it?

Managing the deployed image

At the moment, Vagrant does not support multiple providers at the same time. So in order to start a local VM (vagrant up), you should do a vagrant destroy on the current provider first.

This is not good. The vagrant destroy command does exactly what it says, and it destroys your VPS. Which is sort of missing the point.

In order to switch back to local development, you should remove the .vagrant/machines/$NAME/digital_ocean/id file. This makes Vagrant forget everything it knows about your VPS and vagrant up will start a local VM as expected.

And now for the nice part: the vagrant-digitalocean plugin actually does not care about this. The next time you do a vagrant up --provider digital_ocean, it will detect your existing VPS by name, and automatically reinstate the id-file.

Reprovisioning the image

Provisioning a server is nice, but being able to reprovision a running server is even better. There are three ways to do this.

The first one is vagrant provision, which just runs the provisioning scripts again. This is great for incremental updates, and it keeps your server online, but it does not guarantee that provisioning works from an initial state as well.

The second one is vagrant destroy ; vagrant up --provider digital_ocean. This will recreate your VPS from the ground up, ensuring a future-proof provisioning. Unfortunately, Digital Ocean does not guarantee that this will give you the same IP address. You will also occur a few minutes of downtime.

The final one is vagrant rebuild, which does guarantee the same IP address and seems to be functionally equivalent to the previous method. This too gives you a few minutes of downtime.

One server does not an infrastructure make

All of this has of course merely touched the surface of real infrastructure provisioning. Because I don’t let Digital Ocean manage my DNS, I have to manually update my records, the server does not do any monitoring, the current configuration is not really exciting, and using a masterless Salt minion setup sort of defeats the purpose of using Salt.

So what.

This exercise has shown me that having your infra as a repo is a viable position, and I am determined to continue down this path. It might even result in another blog post.